From an academic perspective, Marx's work contributed to the birth of modern sociology. Working in the Hegelian tradition, Marx rejected Comtean sociological positivism in an attempt to develop a science of society. Isaiah Berlin considers Marx the true founder of modern sociology "in so far as anyone can claim the title". Social theorists of the 20th and 21st centuries have pursued two main strategies in response to Marx. One move has been to reduce it to its analytical core, known as analytical Marxism.
Another, more common, move has been to dilute the explanatory claims of Marx's social theory and emphasise the "relative autonomy" of aspects of social and economic life not directly related to Marx's central narrative of interaction between the development of the "forces of production" and the succession of "modes of production". Such has been for example the neo-Marxist theorising adopted by historians inspired by Marx's social theory, such as E. Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. It has also been a line of thinking pursued by thinkers and activists like Antonio Gramsci who have sought to understand the opportunities and the difficulties of transformative political practice, seen in the light of Marxist social theory.
Politically, Marx's legacy is more complex. Throughout the 20th century, revolutions in dozens of countries labelled themselves "Marxist"—most notably the Russian Revolution , which led to the founding of the Soviet Union. Beyond where Marxist revolutions took place, Marx's ideas have informed political parties worldwide.
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Marx remains both relevant and controversial. In May , to mark the bicentenary of his birth, a 4. European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker defended Marx's memory, saying that today Marx "stands for things which he is not responsible for and which he didn't cause because many of the things he wrote down were redrafted into the opposite". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named Karl Marx, see Karl Marx disambiguation.
For other uses, see Marx disambiguation. German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist and journalist. FRSA . Trier , Prussia , German Confederation. London , England. Prussian — Stateless after Jenny von Westphalen m. Heinrich Marx father Henriette Pressburg mother. Louise Juta sister Jean Longuet grandson. Continental philosophy Marxism Correspondence theory of truth . List of Marxists. Theoretical works. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Economic determinism Historical materialism Marx's dialectic Marx's method Philosophy of nature.
Related topics. Main article: Influences on Karl Marx. Further information: Marx's theory of human nature. The philosophers G. Hegel and Ludwig Feuerbach , whose ideas on dialectics heavily influenced Marx. Further information: Labour theory of value. Further information: Marxian economics. Main article: Marxism. Sociology portal Germany portal Communism portal Socialism portal Business and economics portal. Marx" is used only in his poetry collections and the transcript of his dissertation; since Marx wanted to honour his father, who had died in , he called himself "Karl Heinrich" in three documents.
See Heinz Monz: Karl Marx. Grundlagen zu Leben und Werk. NCO-Verlag, Trier , p. Divergent Paths: The Hegelian foundations of Marx's method. Lexington Books. Journal of Classical Sociology. Duden in German. Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 23 November Princeton: Princeton University Press, Volume 26 of Unwin University books. Zalta, Edward N. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 10 December Max Weber is known as a principal architect of modern social science along with Karl Marx and Emil Durkheim.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Volume Oxford University Press. Bottomore A Dictionary of Marxist thought. Retrieved 5 March Fedoseyev Progress Publishers: Moscow, Fedoseyev, et al. Karl Marx: A Biography , p. Fedoseyev et al. Karl Marx — Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. First published Tue 26 August ; substantive revision Mon 14 June Retrieved 4 March Fedoseyev, Karl Marx: A Biography , p. Socialism: utopian and scientific. Resistance Books. Retrieved 7 March From Plato to Derrida.
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Fedoseyev, et al , Karl Marx: A Biography , p. SAGE Publications. Requiem for Marx. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved 9 March New York: Harper and Row. Marx as Provincial Politician". Central European History. In Karl Marx. Karl Marx — Man and Fighter. Read Books. Principles of publicity and press freedom. Psychology Press. Picket Line Press. London Markets, 4th. New Holland Publishers. Retrieved 23 April Dussel; Fred Moseley Towards an unknown Marx: a commentary on the manuscripts of — Archived from the original on 1 September New York: Alfred A.
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Fedoseyev, Karl Marx: A Biography , Knopf Publishing, New York, p. The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. Wildside Press LLC. Retrieved 16 March From Hegel to Marx: studies in the intellectual development of Karl Marx. Columbia University Press. The dictionary of human geography. De George; James Patrick Scanlan Karl Marx's social and political thought.
Marxism: the inner dialogues. Transaction Publishers. Born to belonging: writings on spirit and justice. Rutgers University Press. Marx after Marxism: the philosophy of Karl Marx. John Wiley and Sons.
A guide to Marx's Capital. CUP Archive. Critique of the Gotha Program. Marx, First draft of letter to Vera Zasulich . Marx a very short introduction. The New York Times. Retrieved 25 September Karl Marx. Norton and Company. In Carver, Terrell ed. The Cambridge Companion to Marx. Retrieved 30 May The richness of life: the essential Stephen Jay Gould. Retrieved 21 December The London Dead. Retrieved 14 July Karl Marx: A Life. New York: Norton.
Sherman Reinventing marxism. JHU Press. Political economy: a comparative approach. Inventing subjects: studies in hegemony, patriarchy and colonialism. Anthem Press. Retrieved 2 May Capital: A Critique of Political Economy , vol. Alienation: Marx's conception of man in capitalist society. Retrieved 8 March In K Marx, Capital Vol. Retrieved 20 October Original work published Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. The American Economist 21 2, pp. In CJ Stivale Ed. The Communist Manifesto.
Echo Library. Marx's Theory of Alienation. Merlin Press. The philosophy of Marx.
DIALECTICAL MARXISM: The Writings of Bertell Ollman
Main currents of Marxism: the founders, the golden age, the breakdown. The Rhetoric of interpretation and the interpretation of rhetoric. Duke University Press. Thompson Ideology and modern culture: critical social theory in the era of mass communication. Stanford University Press. Critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of right'. Swatos; Peter Kivisto Encyclopedia of religion and society.
Rowman Altamira. Turner Pearson Prentice Hall. Pine Forge Press. Making sense of Marx. Cambridge University Press. This being the case, we must also recognise the fact that in most countries on the Continent the lever of our revolution must be force; it is force to which we must some day appeal to erect the rule of labour. Anderson University of Chicago Press. Marx, La Russie et l'Europe , Paris, , p.
Originally published in Neue Rheinische Zeitung , no. December The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Hindu. The Observer. Retrieved 25 March Classical and modern social theory. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation. Max Weber — Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. From Hegel to Nietzsche. New York: Columbia University Press, , p.
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Karl Marx: His Life and Environment. Critical Studies in Mass Communication. Translated by P. New York: W. Main Currents in Sociological Thought. Considerations on Western Marxism. London: NLB, Pluto Press, Retrieved 8 January The South African. Retrieved 16 May The Independent.
The Guardian. Let's remind them of the millions who died in his name". The Daily Telegraph. Viewpoint Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 January BBC News. Retrieved 6 May Calhoun, Craig J. Classical Sociological Theory. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Hobsbawm, Eric London: Little, Brown. McLellan, David Karl Marx: A Biography fourth edition.
Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan. Nicolaievsky, Boris ; Maenchen-Helfen, Otto . Karl Marx: Man and Fighter. Gwenda David and Eric Mosbacher. Harmondsworth and New York: Pelican. Schwarzschild, Leopold . Pickwick Books Ltd. Singer, Peter Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sperber, Jonathan Stedman Jones, Gareth Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion. London: Allen Lane. Stokes, Philip Philosophy: Essential Thinkers. Kettering: Index Books. Vygodsky, Vitaly Verlag Die Wirtschaft. Wheen, Francis London: Fourth Estate.
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History of communism Communist revolution Communist symbolism Communist party Communist state. As English became a distinct university discipline with its own curriculum, it moved away from the study of British literature and canonical works of the Western tradition in translation, and toward the philosophies that guide textual interpretation. Although a short, sweeping survey of what followed may not satisfy those in the field, it provides others with the relevant background. The first major school to establish itself in English departments was the New Criticism.
Its counterpart was Russian formalism, characterized by figures like Victor Shklovsky and Roman Jakobson, who attempted to distinguish literary texts from other texts, examining what qualities made written representations poetic, compelling, original, or moving rather than merely practical or utilitarian.
One such quality was defamiliarization. Literature, in other words, defamiliarizes language by using sound, syntax, metaphor, alliteration, assonance, and other rhetorical devices. The New Criticism, which was chiefly pedagogical, emphasized close reading, maintaining that readers searching for meaning must isolate the text under consideration from externalities like authorial intent, biography, or historical context.
This method is similar to legal textualism whereby judges look strictly at the language of a statute, not to legislative history or intent, to interpret the import or meaning of that statute. Richards, and T. In a way, all subsequent schools of Theory are responses or reactions to the New Criticism. Structuralism permeated French intellectual circles in the s. Through structuralism, thinkers like Michel Foucault, Jacques Lacan, Julia Kristeva, and Louis Althusser imported leftist politics into the study of literary texts. Structuralism is rooted in the linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure, a Swiss linguist who observed how linguistic signs become differentiated within a system of language.
When we say or write something, we do it according to rules and conventions in which our anticipated audience also operates. Out of structuralism and post-structuralism emerged Structural Marxism, a school of thought linked to Althusser that analyzes the role of the state in perpetuating the dominance of the ruling class, the capitalists. These men revised, repurposed, and extended classical Marxism by emphasizing culture and ideology, incorporating insights from emerging fields such as psychoanalysis, and researching the rise of mass media and mass culture.
Dissatisfied with economic determinism and the illusory coherence of historical materialism—and jaded by the failures of socialist and communist governments—these thinkers retooled Marxist tactics and premises in their own ways without entirely repudiating Marxist designs or ambitions. Beginning in the s and s, scholars like Terry Eagleton and Fredric Jameson were explicit in embracing Marxism. They rejected the New Critical approaches that divorced literature from culture, stressing that literature reflected class and economic interest, social and political structures, and power.
Accordingly, they considered how literary texts reproduced or undermined cultural or economic structures and conditions. Jacques Derrida is recognized as the founder of deconstruction. For instance, the meaning of male depends on the meaning of female; the meaning of happy depends on the meaning of sad; and so forth. Thus, the theoretical difference between two opposing terms, or binaries, unites them in our consciousness.
And one binary is privileged while the other is devalued. The result is a hierarchy of binaries that are contextually or arbitrarily dependent, according to Derrida, and cannot be fixed or definite across time and space.
Marx, Karl (Marxism and Education)
That is because meaning exists in a state of flux, never becoming part of an object or idea. New Historicism, a multifaceted enterprise, is associated with Shakespearean scholar Stephen Greenblatt. It looks at historical forces and conditions with a structuralist and post-structuralist eye, treating literary texts as both products of and contributors to discourse and discursive communities.
It is founded on the idea that literature and art circulate through discourse and inform and destabilize cultural norms and institutions.
Marxism and materialism often surface when new historicists seek to highlight texts and authors or literary scenes and characters in terms of their effects on culture, class, and power. New historicists focus on low-class or marginalized figures, supplying them with a voice or agency and giving them overdue attention. This political reclamation, while purporting to provide context, nevertheless risks projecting contemporary concerns onto works that are situated in a particular culture and historical moment.
Much of the outcry about cultural Marxism is outrageous, uninformed, and conspiratorial. Some of it simplifies, ignores, or downplays the fissures and tensions among leftist groups and ideas. Nevertheless, Marxism pervades Theory, despite the competition among the several ideas under that broad label.